Well, I took a workshop on grafting apple trees this spring, and thought I needed more practice, but it looks like my first one took. We'll see as the season progresses. I bought some deer repellent vials to clip on my trees. Let's hope they work. This workshop was put on by midfex, and I thought it was a good, no nonsense practical event. The midfex members are quite open to sharing their knowledge, and their scions.